About Milele 2020

M2020 Description and Rationale

Poverty continues to be a problem on both isles, particularly in rural and agriculture dependent households. According to the Household Budget Survey (HBS 2014/2015) 30.4 % of Zanzibaris are living below the poverty line and 10.8 % of which are living in extreme poverty and cannot afford to buy basic foodstuffs to meet nutritional requirements of 2,200 kilocalories per day. Additionally, the majority of people in Zanzibar are clustered around the poverty line which indicates that although there are moderately poor people who are positioned to move out of poverty, there is still a significant percentage of the population which is vulnerable to falling into poverty. The survey also highlights the fact that poverty is more pervasive in rural areas, with 74.3 % of the basic needs poor and 81.8 percent of the food poor in Zanzibar live in rural areas. Poverty and extreme poverty is caused by a number of different factors, including low quality of education and skills, poor health, poor delivery of services as well as poor distribution of resources and access to capital.

In 2017, MZF began to develop a strategy which will help to build off of the successes of the previous 3 years of implementation while also deepen its impact in the communities it is working in. The Milele 2020 strategy was developed through consultations with various stakeholders from the health, education and livelihoods sectors in Zanzibar. Both government, CSOs and private sector individuals were consulted to identify the key areas which require focus and attention in the rural areas of Unguja and Pemba. Some of the key issues identified from each sector are as follows;

In terms of education, according to the Education Sector Analysis (ESA) 2015, primary children in Zanzibar are performing poorly with 20% of STD 7 students failing, especially in English, Kiswahili and Mathematics subjects. Additionally, over 140,000 children aged 4-15 years are out of school in Zanzibar, either un-enrolled or have dropped out . The sector faces a number of challenges including shortage of classrooms and teachers as well as adequate capacity and resources to encourage teaching and learning. Poverty is a major contributing factor and low awareness and engagement of parents and community prevents schools from being accountable to ensure that children are learning.

In terms of livelihoods, nearly 20% of youth are unemployed . Although women in rural areas are involved in agriculture, many are involved in informal sector, they do not have access to capital or resources and many do not have the skills to successfully lead and run an entrepreneurial venture.

In health, although the clinics are within 5 Km reach, many mothers still have a tendency to give birth at home (46%) , and most of them do not attend regular ante-natal checkups at recommended levels; only 29 % attend at least 4 ANC visits. In terms of child nutrition, infant and young child feeding practices are still sub-optimal with only 20% of children being exclusively breast fed for the first 6 months, and only 12% of those 6 to 23 months old being appropriately fed resulting into high levels of malnutrition which threatens opportunity of children to develop to their full potential.

M2020 Objectives and Design

The Milele2020 (M2020) strategy is a holistic, participatory community development program which targets 23 Shehias Pemba with over 76,000 people in Unguja and. The main ultimate aim of the project over the next 3 years is to improve the wellbeing of the MZF target communities. The focus will be on cross sector pollination, finding connectivities in the ways each sector supports, and assists one another. Instead of a purely sectoral approach, the M2020 program is adopting a program approach that centers on the improvement of the individual, whether teacher, mother, student or farmer, as a whole being.

The theory of change is based on the following statements:

If community leaders, parents, women and youth are empowered with the knowledge, resources as well as skills and competencies of social accountability, then they will hold one another accountable and ultimately ensure the wellbeing of their communities

If women and youth are equipped with the right knowledge, resources, skills and competencies to enable them to design and operate innovative entrepreneurial ventures, then they will be able to increase the income opportunities and contribute to improving the livelihood of themselves and their families. If teachers and health workers are motivated, incentivized with skills, knowledge and resources then they will develop professionally and ethically and ensure quality service delivery for the benefit of the communities they serve.

Several projects will be designed and developed to feed into the outcomes.

The key strategies utilized in the individual projects are as follows: The projects will center on building the core competencies of community collaboration, citizenship, volunteerism and initiative taking amongst the targeted beneficiaries so as to ultimately become agents of change in their communities

The projects will focus on developing innovations to solve common challenges. The innovations will be centered on simple, low-resourced solutions to common problems.

Performance based incentives and demand driven solutions will be the basis of providing resources and building the necessary attitudes and behaviors to enable lasting change

In implementation of its projects MZF strongly consider inclusiveness programs aiming at bridging equity, gender, and disability gaps in terms of access to different services. The program recognizes the gender imbalance prevalent in many areas in Unguja and Pemba, especially in rural communities across all the three sectors that M2020 is working on and is considering specific interventions to address them.

M2020 Management and Partnership Structure

The M2020 program will be managed through a partnership approach between MZF and several other stakeholders including relevant Ministries, CSOs and other institutions. Within MZF, the lead project implementers will be the Project Coordinators of Education, Health and Livelihood with support from project officers as well as field officers on the ground. The Head of Programs and Head of Operations will supervise the implementation of the project.

M2020 Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning As a pilot project aiming to improve wellbeing of communities through a participatory and holistic process; M&E will be an integral part of this initiative. A result framework has been designed and specific indicators identified. A baseline study targeting the 23 Shehias will be conducted to gather all relevant data to set the targets for the indicators to be tracked. The results will help to inform not only the aggregate set of indicators but also the special needs and issues of each individual Shehia. A formative evaluation will be conducted at the end of the project to link the findings with the baseline and track whether any impact has been achieved.

List of 23 Shehias in Unguja and Pemba


List of Shehia



Dunga Kiembeni



Kiboje Mkwajuni







West “A”



West “A”



North “A”



 North “A”



 North “A”


Bumbwini Mafufuni

North “B”


















Chake- Chake



Chake- Chake  


Msuka Mashariki












Kiuyu Kigongoni






MtambweMashariki (Kokota)